arak (Silver Leaves ) or varaka is any foil composed of a pure metal, typically silver, sometimes gold used for garnishing sweets in South Asian cuisine. The silver is edible, though flavorless. Varak is made by pounding silver into a sheet a few ( µ ) thick (0.2 micron to 0.8 micron ), and backed with paper for support; this paper is peeled away before use. It is extremely brittle and breaks into smaller pieces if touched. 0.2 micron's extra thin leaves get stuck on hand and then it vanished due to excessively low thickness (due to thickness close to inter-atomic distance). Vark sheets are laid or rolled over some South Asian sweets. Edible silver and gold foils on sweets, confectionery and desserts are not unique to the Indian subcontinent; other regions such as Japan and Europe have long used precious metal foils as food cover and additive, including specialty drinks such as Danziger Goldwasser.
It is also commonly used in India as coating on dry fruits (such as almonds, cashews, and dates), and in sugar balls, betel nuts, cardamom and other spices. Cardamom-coated sweets are very commonly present in the market. Concerns have been raised about the safety and ethical acceptability of Vark, as not all of it is pure silver, nor hygienically prepared, and the foil nowadays commonly is beaten between layers of ox-gut because it is easier to separate the silver leaf from animal tissue than to separate it from paper.
It is considered that some technologies evolved for the production of silver leaves i.e. in Russia, German, China and India. Technologies like beating over sheets of Black special treated paper, Polyester sheets coated with food grade Calcium powder are used instead of Ox-guts. Estimated consumption of Vark is 275 tons ( according to BWC-Beauty without cruelty data ) annually. Hindu and Jain religions care much about whether a food is vegetarian or not, thus the market of India has turned and converted into vegetarian processed silver leaves.
Gold and silver are approved food foils in the European Union, as E175 and E174 additives respectively. The independent European food-safety certification agency, TÜV Rheinland, has deemed gold leaf safe for consumption. Gold and silver leaf are also certified as kosher. These inert precious metal foils are not considered toxic to human beings nor to broader ecosystems.
One study has found that about 10% of 178 foils studied from the Lucknow (India) market were made of aluminium. Of the tested foils, 46% of the samples were found to have the desired purity requirement of 99.9% silver, whereas the rest had less than 99.9% silver. All the tested Indian foils contained on average trace levels of nickel (487 ppm), lead (301 ppm), copper (324 ppm), chromium (83 ppm), cadmium (97 ppm) and manganese (43 ppm). All of these are lower than natural anthropogenic exposures of these metals; the authors suggest there is a need to address a lack of purity standards in European Union and Indian food additive grade silver.
The total silver metal intake per kilogram of sweets eaten, from vark, is less than one milligram.
Large quantities of ingested bio active silver can cause argyria, but the use of edible silver or gold as vark is not considered harmful to the body, since the metal is in inert form (not ionic bio active form), and the quantities involved in normal use are minuscule However, while silver leaf may be safe to ingest, there is a risk of disease, due to the fact that the silver is initially hammered under rather unsanitary conditions.